P1. If Yahweh and Allah were identical, then they would have the same properties.
P2. Yahweh and Allah do not have the same properties.
C. Therefore, Yahweh and Allah are not identical. (M.T. 1, 2)
Justification for the premises.
P1. This is a formulation of Leibniz’s law of identity, which states that “X is identical with Y if and only if every property of X is a property of Y and every property of Y is a property of X.” (Baggini and Fosl, 2003)
P2. Both Christianity and Islam affirm that there is a transcendent, all-knowing, all-powerful deity. However, the God of the Bible is revealed to be a Trinity (John 6:27, Col. 2:9, Acts 5:3-9). Allah, according to the Qur’an, is one being (Sura 4:171). Yahweh is described as love (I John 4:8) and loving all humanity (John 3:16). There are broad categories of individuals whom Allah “hates” according to their behavior: transgressors (S. 2:190), the ungrateful (S. 2:276), and the unbeliever (S. 30:43-45). Sura 3:31-32 makes Allah’s love contingent on believing in the prophet Muhammad. While the love of Yahweh for His creation is universal, the love of Allah is selective and conditional.
We are, therefore, justified in concluding that the God of the Bible and the god of Islam are not identical.